GENEALOGY

-In the Bible Genealogical lists in the Bible are of two main types: (1) those which are simply lists of historical, ethnographic, and even legendary traditions, and which constitute most of the lists in Genesis that are called "generations" or "books of generations" (Gen. 5:1; 6:9; 10:1; et al.); (2) those which are tribal genealogies or lists reflecting clan traditions, the census lists in Numbers, and the genealogical accounts in Chronicles. A third type consists of detailed lists giving the genealogical background of individual families, usually where that family played an important historical role, such as in the case of the house of David (I Chron. 2:10–15; 3:1–24), the house of Zadok (I Chron. 5:28–41; et al.), and the house of Saul (I Chron. 8:33ff.; et al.). Sometimes, less important families (I Chron. 2:31–41; 5:14; et al.), and also individuals (II Kings 22:3; Jer. 36:14), are represented in the same way as in the third type of list. The Bible does not distinguish these different types from each other, and the historico-ethnographic and tribal genealogies are all based on the view (common also among the Arabs) that nations, tribes, and clans all develop in the same way: every human grouping is descended from a single father. Nor is it always easy to classify a genealogy as belonging to one or another type. It is not known when the tradition of recording genealogies became established in Israel, but it is undoubtedly an ancient one, as only by proving connection with some family or clan could an individual claim the privileges of citizen status. The important role of the genealogy is indicative of a society based on a tribal, patriarchal tradition. Consequently, certain family groups or individuals from among the local population or from closely related tribes, who joined the Israelites during the period of the Conquest or in the early monarchy, were included in the genealogical framework of the tribe as one way of truly incorporating them into the community. In like manner artisans, wise men, and poets, whose profession was customarily hereditary, were generally linked with some ancient ancestor (cf. I Chron. 2:55; 4:21, 23), and   The line of Caleb (I Chron. 2:42 49). indicates names of towns in Judah.. indicates names of towns in Judah.") The line of Caleb (I Chron. 2:42– 49). ∇ indicates names of towns in Judah.   whoever joined such a group was as a matter of course attached to it genealogically even though he did not actually stem from its line. Such written lists were definitely family and clan genealogies and not those of individuals; in part they were composed for official purposes, such as for a national census, military service, or the levying of taxes. Genealogical lists in Israel are known from the time of the First Temple, from what is related in Ezra 2:62 of priestly families who on returning to Zion sought proof of their pedigree but could not find it. Nehemiah (7:5) also mentions the "book of the genealogy of those who came up at first." It seems that the institution of genealogical lists is the background of certain figurative expressions in the Bible (cf. Ex. 32:32; Ezek. 13:9; Ps. 139:16; et al.). Apparently genealogies of individual families were based on oral traditions passed down among the families concerned, or even on national traditions. Some think that the list of Aaron's priestly descendants (I Chron. 5–6) goes back to a text in which many generations were missing, and that the editors filled some of the gaps by repeating some of the names. In the period of the return to Zion the question of genealogy acquired a special significance. Of primary importance was the lineage of the priests and the levites, for without proving their priestly descent they could not qualify for service in the Temple; but the other returning families were no less keen to prove their descent in order to claim family property. Consequently, a special interest developed in the ancient genealogical lists, some of which are reproduced in the opening chapters of Chronicles and presumably were written toward the end of the Persian period. Similarly, in the short historical stories of Esther, Judith, and Tobit, also written at the end of the Persian period, the lineage of the main hero of the story is given in detail, e.g., those of Mordecai (Esth. 2:5; cf. I Sam. 9:1), Tobit (1:1; cf. Gen. 46:24), and Judith (8:1; cf. Num. 1:6). It is hard to suppose that these are authentic genealogies, yet each of these books claims to relate an event that happened long before the time of composition. In the genealogical lists, particularly those of I Chronicles, there are three main elements which are usually combined. One represents the relationship of clans through lines of descent from father to son; another sees it in the names of settlements (usually so-and-so, the "father" of the settlement); and a third, in the names of families (e.g., the Tirathites (I Chron. 2:55). The line of Caleb's descendants (I Chron. 2:42–49) illustrates the mixture. Various scholars have sought to find in the genealogical schemes of the Bible a conventional way of handing down ethnographic records and information concerning regional history and the pattern of settlement of local clans and families. These scholars have even attempted to establish rules to interpret the various genealogical schemes. Thus, the fusing of two ethnic groups or tribes can be expressed by an account of a marriage; and the integration of a newly settled tribe in the indigenous population can be indicated by the head of the tribe marrying one of the native women, or taking one as a concubine. Daughters generally represent settlements subject to a larger urban center, and sons naturally represent the strongest and oldest of these. Individuals from outside the   "family" circle who appear in a genealogy usually symbolize weak families who joined a stronger tribe and so on. Though such rules cannot provide the sole interpretation of the genealogical lists, they are an aid to the unraveling of the complicated process of Israelite settlement. One, of course, must bear in mind that several of the stories and traditions concerned derive from a combination of schematic descriptions, as regards the historic reality, together with legends and folktales. It frequently happens that a given name – of a nation, tribe, or family – occurs in different genealogical contexts, or even in a compound list, once as father, once as son, uncle, or brother. For example, Aram is listed in Genesis 10:23 as the father of Uz, whereas in Genesis 22:20–21 Uz is a son of Nahor and an uncle of Aram. In Genesis 36:5, 14 Korah is a son of Esau, but in Genesis 36:16 the clan of Korah is descended from Esau's son Eliphaz. In I Chronicles 2:9 Ram is a son of Hezron and brother of Jerahmeel, yet in the same chapter, verse 27, Ram is the eldest son of Jerahmeel. Sometimes one name can be included in several genealogical lists in association with different ethnic or tribal units. For instance, Zerah, Korah, and Kenaz, who are included in the Edomite list in Genesis 36, are also found on the list of families in the tribe of Judah in I Chronicles 2 and 4; Beriah appears as one of the sons of Ephraim (I Chron. 7:23), and also as one of the sons of Asher (Gen. 46:17); and Hezron is listed as the son of Reuben (Gen. 46:9), and also as one of the sons of Perez son of Judah (Gen. 46:12). At times it may seem plausible that two entirely separate ethnic groups bore the same name, but generally such duplication is caused by uncertainty concerning genealogical attribution or the existence of parallel traditions. These may have had various causes; sometimes they reflect changes in historical circumstances – the power relations between tribes, families and clans; the migration of several tribes or clans from one region to another; or a mingling of various ethnic elements. The editors of the genealogical lists in the Bible, particularly those of I Chronicles, were confronted with conflicting lists and traditions, often mutually contradictory. The combination of the various lists, without altering their different, individual character, was possible because the editors of the comprehensive lists regarded them as genealogies of individuals, the progenitors of families and tribes. Thus, the repeated recurrence of the same name provided no difficulty. They did not regard such recurrences as conflicting data concerning families and clans, but merely as showing that the same name kept recurring among individuals related to one another. (Jacob Liver) -In the Second Temple Period Purity of descent played an important role in the Second Temple period. It concerned mainly the kohanim ("priests") and those Israelite families who laid claim to the eligibility of their daughters to marry kohanim. Other families, who had no record of their descent but on the other hand were not suspected of impure lineage, were referred to as issah ("dough"). The kohanim, in order to preserve their pure status, were restricted to marital ties with families whose purity of descent was not in doubt, and were therefore required to know in detail their own genealogy and that of the families whose daughters they married. Families laying claim to purity of blood kept ancestral lists, which served as evidence of their seniority and legitimacy, for the very possession of such lists enhanced their standing. For the kohanim, a general genealogical list was maintained in the Temple, which recorded genealogical information on all priestly families; even the kohanim who lived in the Diaspora provided this genealogical center in Jerusalem with full details of their marriages (cf. Jos., Apion, 1:7). A priestly tribunal, which convened in a special room in the Temple, was responsible for the upkeep of the genealogical lists and the verification of genealogical data. They functioned in accordance with established rules, and also based their findings on the evidence of witnesses and genealogical documents. One such rule followed in the Second Temple period was that families who traditionally performed certain functions were beyond suspicion and their purity of descent required no further examination: priestly families who served in the Temple "from the altar and upward" and "from the dukhan (the place from which the kohanim blessed the people) and upward," and members of the sanhedrin and other families who performed certain official functions (Kid. 4:4–5; Sanh. 4:2; Ar. 2:4). Other duties, such as participation in the priestly blessing or partaking in the terumah (the contribution made to kohanim), did not in themselves put the priestly family in question beyond the need for further proof. It should be pointed out that the various offices in the Temple service passed from father to son. It is important to note that the sages did not owe their positions of leadership to their descent from prominent families. Some of the sages, it is true, were of noble lineage (such as judah ha-nasi ), but others came from families with no genealogical record and there were even a few who were the descendants of proselytes. In their society, the rabbi took the place of the father, and the tradition of the academies (the yeshivot) took precedence over the tradition of the family. Talmudic legends went so far as to "invent" a gentile origin for some sages, including some of the greatest (akiva , meir , and others); some sages were even said to have been descended from infamous and evil gentiles (Sisera, Sennacherib, Haman, Nero) who had repented of their ways and had become Jews. The evident purpose of such legends was to demonstrate that the acquisition of Torah learning and piety was not dependent upon noble descent. Purity of blood did, however, play a role in the struggle for secular power among the prominent families, and even the royal houses had to resort to genealogical proofs in order to strengthen their position. Thus the hasmoneans , who had to defend themselves against the contention that only Davidic descendants could lay claim to kingship, in turn questioned the purity of David's blood, in view of his descent from Ruth   the Moabite. herod , who also had to face a challenge to the legitimacy of his rule, forged for himself a pedigree going back to David, after first destroying the genealogical records maintained in the Temple (according to the third-century Christian historian Africanus). Later sources reflect the great danger inherent in any attempt to probe the purity of leading families, for the latter would not hesitate to use force against anyone casting doubt upon their pure descent (Kid. 71a). johanan b. zakkai therefore decreed (apparently on the eve of the destruction of the Temple) that no rabbinical court would deal with matters concerning genealogy (Eduy. 8:3). A similar consideration led to an early rejection of Sefer Yuḥasin, which seems to have been a Midrash on Chronicles (Pes. 62b). After the destruction of the Temple, when the kohanim lost their function, they prized even more their purity of descent, for it was the only symbol left to them of their exalted status. This emphasis on descent continued up to the end of the era of the amoraim (sixth century), in both Ereẓ Israel and Babylon. One result was that a man who wished to ensure the continued purity of his family would marry only his sister's daughter (Yev. 62b, et al.); many of the great sages followed this practice. The Damascus Sect (see Book of the Covenant of damascus ) disapproved of it. It is doubtful whether the rabbis of the tannaitic and talmudic era had real knowledge of their own – and contemporary – genealogy. Numerous families are mentioned in the Mishnah and the Gemara, and some of these are described as being of traceable descent (Tosef., Pe'ah 4:11; Yev. 16b; Ta'an. 4:5, etc.). The list in the Mishnah Ta'anit 4:5 originates from the Persian period. Some of the genealogies ascribed to these families are undoubtedly of a legendary character, while the rest are disputed by scholars. A special problem is posed by the later genealogy of the house of David, a subject which also concerned the early Christians (Matt. 1:1–17, Luke 3:23–38). The Mishnah (Kid. 4:1) lists ten social groups who returned from the Babylonian exile, in the order of their genealogical precedence. The first three – kohanim, levites, and Israelites – are of equal status, except that the kohanim are restricted in their choice of wives; the ḥalalim are the sons of the marriages of disqualified kohanim and are themselves disqualified from service in the Temple and marital ties with kohanim; next are gerim (converts to Judaism) who are equal to Israelites in most respects, except that they may enter certain marriages which are prohibited to an Israelite by descent; the sixth group are the ḥarurim, manumitted slaves; the seventh are the mamzerim , i.e., bastards, the children of one of the unions prohibited on pain of death or karet ; next are the nethinim, the descendants of the Gibeonites who were circumcised at the time of Joshua and were not regarded as full Jews because their ancestors' conversion was incomplete; the ninth group are the shetukim ("the silent ones") who do not know the identity of their father; and the tenth, and lowest, group are the asufim ("foundlings") who know neither mother nor father. A chapter in the Talmud (Kid. 4) is devoted to the relationships between these groups, i.e., the rules applying to intermarriage between one group and another. Not included in the scale are gentiles and slaves; these have no genealogical status at all, and when they convert or are set free achieve their own "descent" and are legally free to marry even their closest relatives. This genealogical scale applied to marriage and honorific matters; it was not deemed relevant in respect of Torah learning and piety, and the Mishnah states clearly that "a learned bastard takes precedence over an uneducated high priest" (Hor. 3:8). Babylonian Jewry considered that the purity of its descent was of a higher order than that of Ereẓ Israel, basing its claim on the tradition that all those whose purity was in doubt had returned to Ereẓ Israel with Ezra. In the course of time, however, Babylonian amoraim declared the population of entire areas as Jews who were not fit "to enter the assembly of God" (i.e., for marriage with other Jews; Kid. 70b). The rabbis of Ereẓ Israel made several attempts to change the existing rule which regarded Babylonian lineage as superior but failed in their attempt; this was a result of the general reluctance to take up genealogical questions prevailing in Ereẓ Israel, as well as the rising importance of Babylonian Jewry at this time (beginning of third century). Babylonian Jews continued to claim greater purity, and the Talmud (Kid. 71b) tells of an impostor who feigned a Babylonian accent to claim Babylonian descent. This development testifies to the degeneration of the concept of genealogy which, with the destruction of the Temple ceased to have practical significance and merely became a symbol of social status. The Talmud makes frequent references to honorable families and individuals who quarreled with one another about their lineage, even stating: "When men quarrel among themselves, they quarrel over birth" (Kid. 76a). The amoraim tackled the problem from two angles: on the one hand they decided that "anyone with a family stigma stigmatizes others and never praises anyone" (according to the correct reading in DER 1), and Samuel added that "he stigmatizes with his own stigma" (Kid. 70b). It is also related in this same spirit of the people of Ereẓ Israel: "When two people quarrel they see which becomes silent first and say to him 'This one is of superior birth'" (ibid. 71b); on the other hand they included within their homilies abundant praise of birth, such as "When the Holy One causes His divine Presence to rest, it is only upon Israelite families of pure birth" (Kid. 70b); "The Holy One is reluctant to uproot a name from its place in a genealogical tree" (Gen. R. 82:11; cf. TJ, Suk. 5:8). The sages also protested against "anyone who takes a wife not fit (i.e., with a stigma) for him" (Kid. 70a) because he disregards the importance of birth. The sages included among their homilies sayings in the style of prophecies of comfort that God will purify Israel's genealogy in time to come. They stressed, however, that for the time being one can only act carefully and be guided by the rule that "a family once mixed up remains so" (Kid. 70b) – an important rule which they regarded as "a charity shown by God to Israel" since it is likely to abolish the obstacles of genealogical stigmas: one should not reveal the truth   concerning families that have become mixed up and whose stigma has been forgotten (see also family ). The Talmud records the Davidic descent of the patriarchs of the Ereẓ Israel community in the talmudic era, and of the Babylonian exilarchs . Similarly, in the post-talmudic era the exilarchs were regarded as descending from the house of David. The same claim was made about some of the geonim (such as hai gaon ). In the Middle Ages, Davidic lineage was claimed for some great scholars, e.g., rashi , and in consequence his grandsons jacob b. meir tam and samuel b. meir were said to have descended from johanan ha-sandlar , who in turn was regarded as being of Davidic descent. -In the Modern Period From the 12th century onward, the term yiḥus (birth) assumed additionally a new and positive meaning among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe. Dynastic connection not only ensured the family concerned against any suspicion of impure birth, but also provided it with family privileges (zekhut avot) applicable in many matters. These dynastic genealogies stemmed from superiority of their pious and scholarly forefathers, the founders of the family, and its main importance was in connection with arranging marriages. Many families possessed genealogical trees – whether of substance or otherwise – which they took great pains to preserve. Some of these lists were published in order to add further luster to the family name. Many rabbis strongly criticized this custom and stressed the value of a man creating his own good name. In Ḥasidism , descent from the ẓaddik was endowed with special significance, rooted in the belief that the ẓaddik transmitted some of his sanctity to his descendants. With the development of dynasties of ẓaddikim the term yiḥus acquired also great formal institutional value. In 19th-century Germany the study of genealogy held an important place in Jewish public affairs, because of the aspiration to prove that the Jewish community was deeply rooted in the locality. Scientific journals dealing with this topic were founded and much scientific and archival material published. (Israel Moses Ta-Shma) -Genealogical Research INTRODUCTION Jewish genealogy is a popular and even scholarly pursuit in many parts of the world today. Since Judaism is not only a community of faith but a people that claims descent from common ancestry, there has always been an interest in tracing and validating descent. To this day there are Jews who trace their descent from the ancient priests (kohanim) and levites (leviim) of the biblical period and who receive special recognition as such in the synagogue service. sephardim are particularly scrupulous in maintaining family genealogical records in order to demonstrate that they are indeed "pure" Sephardim (sefardi tahor). RABBINIC GENEALOGY Because of the importance attached to Torah learning in the Jewish tradition, genealogical records of rabbis and ḥasidic leaders (rebbes) are relatively abundant and carefully recorded. Genealogical research is facilitated by the frequency with which these families intermarried. Rabbinic genealogical information may be found in biographical works, rabbinic manuscripts, scholarly works and responsa literature. Yizkor books on the shtetls of Eastern Europe contain stories about the town rabbis and their families. Because rabbis and scholars held positions of esteem in the Jewish world, their writings were preserved and their yahrzeits observed. Therefore it may be possible to trace farther back into time if one is of rabbinic descent even if the family did not maintain records. Amongst the problems in creating a rabbinic family genealogy is the fact that despite large numbers of children born into rabbinic families, only those sons who were rabbis and daughters who married rabbis were usually recorded. Research has been complicated by the changing of family names. A son-in-law might take the name of a scholarly father-in-law or that of a beloved mother-in-law in place of the patronym. Adding to the confusion is the usage of the Hebrew word ḥatan, which refers to both son-in-law, father-in-law, and husband. Encyclopedic works may record rabbis according to first names. Since words in rabbinic literature are used sparingly, rabbis were often known by rashe tevot (first letter abbreviations) or by the names of books they authored (see B. Friedberg , Bet Eked Sefarim). The use of the title "Reb" as sign of respect for a non-rabbi also leads to misunderstandings. Publication of a rabbi's writings often contained bibliographies of the author and yahrzeit dates for members of the family. Introductory haskamot (approbations) by rabbis who read the manuscript included their own biographical notes about the author and his family, recording the names of other scholars in the family. She'elot and teshuvot (rabbinic responsa) also may contain genealogical references. WHAT IS GENEALOGY TODAY? In contrast to the traditional view of genealogy as simply a compilation of ancestors' names and dates in a chronological order from the past to the present, genealogy today differs both in direction and in scope. Starting with the present, the researcher works back into history, recording personal characteristics and history as well as names and dates. Since the search has a personal motivation, which is self-understanding, the term genealogy is being used interchangeably with family history or personal history. Genealogy previously had been primarily an activity of the elderly. The "new" genealogy has attracted a much younger constituency. It is not unusual to hear that a genealogist has been researching his ancestry for 30 years. Starting with two parents, four grandparents, eight great-grandparents, continually increasing their number, we find that, within ten generations, if successful, a person will have 1,024 direct ancestors. The number grows proportionally as we add brothers, sisters and their spouses and children at each generational level. Key elements in genealogy are names, dates, places, and relationships. These records have been recorded on many artistic   charts and trees. Information can be collected and stored in albums or books, on tapes, maps, and slides. Today, with a computer, people with large genealogies produce computerized copies of their ancestry. Starting with oneself, the genealogist poses the following questions. What were the personal, historic, economic, religious, and social reasons that brought my ancestors to uproot themselves and move from one country to another? How have my parents' and ancestors' decisions, beliefs, and needs affected my environment and my life? A family tree is only the framework for family history. Stories, legends, and events in the life of members of the family give drama and meaning to the genealogy. Often a family maintains that it is descended from the Ba'al Shem Tov, the Vilna Gaon, the Maharal of Prague, Rashi, and other famous personalities. These traditions add excitement and encouragement for the genealogist. An explosion of interest in genealogy across the United States of America was sparked by the bicentennial celebration of American independence in 1976 and ignited by the television screening of Alex Haley's bestseller Roots in 1977. These events carried a strong message of encouragement to all Americans to take pride in their ethnic origins. Along with other ethnic groups Jews have joined the "Back to Roots" movement. In 1977, Dan Rottenberg published Finding Our Fathers: A Guidebook To Jewish Genealogy which provided a major resource for Jewish genealogists. In 1979 there were three Jewish genealogical societies in North America and by 1984 there were 17, located in New York, Washington, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleveland, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Tidewater (Virginia), Orange County, San Diego, San Francisco, Detroit, Boston, southern Florida, Cincinnati, and Montreal. These organizations function as a support system for the researcher and a forum for sharing discoveries, methods, and sources of research, and genealogical skills and techniques. In 1977 the first American journal of Jewish genealogy, Toledot: The Journal of Jewish Genealogy, was published in New York, followed by Roots Key from Los Angeles, Philadelphia's Newsletter, Mishpacha from Washington, and Search from Chicago. In 1981, the First National Summer Seminar on Jewish Genealogy took place in New York City. Subsequently, national seminars were held in Washington in 1982, Los Angeles in 1983, and Chicago in 1984. The First International Seminar, sponsored by the Jewish Genealogy Society of Greater Washington, was held in Jerusalem in 1984. These seminars provide participants with the opportunity to visit local archives, libraries, and cemeteries, to meet other genealogists from different cities and countries, and to attend educational workshops. The shock of the Holocaust was a significant factor in stimulating Jewish genealogy. Jewish attention was turned back to Eastern Europe. Jews were tormented by questions of what and who had been lost. Questions about ancestral roots were reawakened. Grievous family losses created a hunger for the reuniting of families and a fierce desire to know who survived. In response agencies were created that are important resources for genealogists: the International Tracing Service (ITS) in Arolsen, West Germany, and the Search Bureau for Missing Relatives in Jerusalem. The ITS, administered by the International Red Cross, maintains a master index on an alphabetic Soundex System. Among the holdings of the ITS are indexes and name lists of concentration camp victims, deportation lists of Jews, and lists of children separated from families. Postwar holdings include lists of inhabitants of the displaced person camps. The staff of the ITS can respond to queries in most languages. In 1945 the Jewish Agency for Palestine established the Search Bureau for Missing Relatives. The office published The Register of Jewish Survivors, listing 58,000 persons. Now they have computerized their list of World War II survivors. Also, the Agency maintains a computerized family finder for Israeli residents indexed by surname, country, and town. French Holocaust research can be done at The Memorial Library in Paris. The book by Serge Klarsfeld, Le Memorial de la Déportation des Juifs de France, contains vital statistics of some 80,000 Jews deported from France. Post-Holocaust Archives. At this time also archives were established to gather, save, and preserve what remained of Jewish records from before the Holocaust and those concerning that period. yad vashem was founded in Israel in 1945. The Leo Baeck Institute, an important archive for German Jewish records, was established in Israel in 1955; its New York Archive has valuable genealogical materials. Yad Vashem became a major center for the collection of oral, photographed, and written testimonies of Holocaust survivors. It has a copy of the ITS holdings; however, it is not equipped to deal with queries or research. There is at Yad Vashem a plan to create a separate file on those who gave testimony and a computer series in Hebrew and English characters listing the victims and significant information about them. Motivated by a need to remember and record life in their native villages and towns now destroyed by Nazis, the landsmannschaft organizations began to produce yizkor bikher ("memorial books"). These yizkor bikher now number over 500 and are an indispensable source of information on the destroyed Jewish communities of Eastern Europe. They include lists of local residents, photographs, stories about personalities who lived in the town, and history of the town itself. Many books have hand-drawn maps of the town which outline the main streets of the shtetl, cemeteries, synagogues, and details not normally found on a map. These books are written mostly in Yiddish and Hebrew, with some English. Most Jewish libraries carry some of the volumes. The most complete selection is at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem and YIVO in New York City. The most recent listing of these volumes can be found in Appendix I by Zachary M. Baker in A Ruined Garden (see Bibliography).   Yad Vashem also has put online names and information for more than three million victims of the Holocaust gathered over the past half century. The names of those murdered are a prominent feature of the new museum exhibition with the Hall of Names and are now accessible for all to search. In 2005, it signed an exchange agreement with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum for the exchange of names of victims taken from lists of deportee and concentration camp records, which will join the affidavits of those murdered that Yad Vashem has painstakingly gathered. Yad Vashem will also have access to the Ben and Vladka Meed National Registry of Jewish Holocaust Survivors collected by the american gathering of jewish holocaust survivors since 1981. The more than 50,000 pre-interview questionnaires of the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation, under the auspices of the University of Southern California, also contain an extensive list of Holocaust victims as well as survivors; the material was not yet accessible online in late 2005. In addition, the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw is the home of a genealogical search for records of Jews in Poland. Yale Reisner developed the project with major financial assistance from the Ronald S. Lauder Foundation. GENERAL METHODOLOGY (1) Interview family, starting with the oldest in each branch of the family. Record and tape everything carefully. The most valuable sources are the oldest living members of the family. Their memories of events and recollection of family experiences cannot be replaced. Fortunate is the researcher who has a relative from the immigrant generation, for this person may remember those who remained behind and were lost in the Holocaust. (2) Locate all relatives; interview or contact by letter or phone. Record dates of all contacts. (3) Search for diaries, biographies, family papers and letters, diplomas, journals and newspaper clippings, photographs, passports, vital records, yahrzeit records, and inscriptions in Bibles and prayer books. (4) Try to discover through family and survivors of the Holocaust who of the family remained in Europe during World War II and what happened to them. Contact International Tracing Service, D-3548 Arolsen, Federal Republic of Germany. (5) Contact or visit Yad Vashem to see if your relatives are recorded in the pages of testimony filed there. These pages list the name and address of the testifier who is often a family member. (6) Search for death records at home, in cemeteries, at funeral parlors, and in synagogues, ḥevra kaddisha records, society and landsmannschaft records, vital statistics departments of the government, newspaper or journal obituaries and notices. (7) Search for birth records at home, in maternity clinics, in government health record centers, and in physicians' files, circumcision records, and vital records in government and state archives. (8) Obtain immigration and naturalization records. In the U.S. petitions for naturalization, "first papers," are particularly valuable since they may record the name of the ship, date, and port of arrival, and destination in the new country. They may have the immigrant's birthplace. (9) Search for steamship passenger manifests. Write for steamship passenger arrival lists, to American and Canadian ports, using the original family names prior to immigration. Ship manifests are available in the National Archives and Record Service (NARS) in Washington D.C., at the archive of the Genealogy Society of Utah, at yivo Institute for Jewish Research in New York, and at HIAS (Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society; see 15: 1539) in New York. HIAS holds steamship ticket records for 1907–10, and passenger lists for 1884, 1886, 1887, 1891–95, 1898, 1901, 1912, 1913. The State Archive in Hamburg holds passenger lists from their heavily used port. Hamburg passenger lists from 1850–1914 may also be found at the Museum of Hamburg, Historic Emigration Office, Holstenwall 24, 2000 Hamburg 36 (there is a users' fee). Some of these archives also hold passenger arrival records from Dutch ports of Amsterdam and Rotterdam; Antwerp, Belgium from years 1854–1855; Trieste, Naples, and Le Havre. The Bremen passenger lists were lost in World War II. (10) Search in old telephone and city directories in larger libraries for addresses of relatives. Census and military records are based on address and ward in large cities. An uncommon name can sometimes be used to find relatives. Old city directories may include occupation and wife's names. The N.Y. Public Library Annex has some pre-Holocaust books from cities in Austria, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, and post-Holocaust ones which help to locate family. (11) For the U.S., obtain U.S. census records taken every ten years; currently available are those from 1790 through 1910. They may provide date of immigration and birth date and place. The National Archives of the United States houses the United States federal census records. The records are filed geographically and by Soundex. These records may be obtained on interlibrary loan or through a regional branch of the Federal Archives. Pamphlets on "How to Get Census and Other Records" are available from the United States Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402. In other countries turn to state archives for census records. (12) Examine court and probate records, pension and social security records, land and tax records, military and draft registration records, business employment records, adoption and divorce records. (13) Visit the local branch of Mormon Genealogical Library. Use gazeteer to find the province where towns are located. Examine town records for Jewish holdings. Order birth, marriage, or death records, census records, and ships' passenger lists. (14) Visit Jewish historical societies, Jewish libraries, large public libraries with genealogy departments, and Jewish archives.   (15) Request to see synagogue records and bulletins, old-age home records, landsmannschaft and other society records. (16) Examine yizkor books of the towns from which the family came. (17) For the U.S., obtain information from HIAS records concerning ships' passenger lists, steamship records, and passage order books. HIAS records can be obtained from YIVO in New York or from a branch of the Genealogical Society of Utah. Also, HIAS processes inquiries for missing persons through a Search and Location Department in New York City. (18) For the U.S., write to the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, for pamphlets on "Where to Write For Birth, Death and Marriage." (19) For Canada, write to the Public Archives of Canada (395 Wellington, Ottawa KIA 0N3, Canada) for a booklet called "Tracing your Ancestors in Canada." (20) In Holland, two organizations of assistance in research of Sephardi genealogies are the Netherlands Joods Familienarchif at Amsteldijk 67, Amsterdam and the Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, POB 11755, 2502 AT, The Hague. GENEALOGY IN ISRAEL The first guide to the use of modern techniques of genealogical research in Israel is "Eretz Israel Jewish Genealogy, An Introduction to the Sources for the Late Ottoman and Mandate Periods" by Michael Plotkin, which appeared in Toledot, 3 (4), 1983. Traditional research in Jewish genealogy relied almost exclusively on Jewish sources such as citations in rabbinic works, family records, ḥevra kaddisha records, cemetery registers, and oral traditions. Modern methods of genealogical research incorporate the technique of quantitative history, including census records, birth, marriage, and divorce registrations in the civil courts, steamship passenger lists, immigration and naturalization records, court records, name changes, wills, and estate and land records. Plotkin, a trained archivist at the Israel State Archives, has shown that these techniques can be used in research in Israel. He also shows how Jewish Agency and World Zionist Organization aliyah records, the Pinkas Ha-Bogrim of the Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine, and histories of local settlements can be utilized for genealogical research. Simultaneous with the publication of Plotkin's pioneering article, the first Jewish genealogical society was organized in Jerusalem. In 1971 under the leadership of Dr. Isaac Halbrecht of Tel Aviv University, the World Zionist Organization established Moreshet Beit Saba (the "Society for Jewish Family Heritage"). The purpose of the society is "to spark a movement centered in Israel that would encourage interest in Jewish family heritage and roots." A questionnaire was formulated in several languages suited in part for computer processing with a genealogical component which is being distributed worldwide to Jewish organizations and educational institutions. In order to preserve the genealogical and ethnographic contents of the questionnaire and to facilitate the study of personal and family history, there is a plan to create an archive and a computer center in Israel which will be available to roots searchers. Moreshet Beit Saba is also supported by the Israel Ministry of Education to foster "a dialogue between the generations through oral history and the roots program in the public schools of Israel." Moreshet Beit Saba is in some ways a response to the revolt against the Jewish tradition which marked some ideologies within the Zionist movement. These ideologies often resulted in feelings of disdain for the Yiddish language and the traditional East European Jewish style of life. The determination to create a new society, a new culture, a new Jew produced a mass movement to adopt new Hebraic names in place of the old, Yiddish, East European names. This movement was given impetus by the insistence that official representatives of the State of Israel abroad had to assume new Hebrew family names. Moreshet Beit Saba is designed to repair some of the disruptions and discontinuities which these Zionist ideologies of revolt produced. MORMON GENEALOGICAL ARCHIVES The Mormon Church of the Latter Day Saints (LDS), established in 1830, has the largest holdings of microfilmed genealogical data in the world. These are stored in six disaster-proof storage vaults in Granite Mountain in Salt Lake City, Utah. Daniel Schlyter is archivist of Jewish records and has provided valuable assistance for Jewish genealogical research. Over 400 branch libraries throughout the world maintain microfilm indices of their holdings which the public may view, and from which it may order specific films for a minimal fee. The LDS fund this program as a religious duty, since a believer who can document his ancestors can bring them posthumously into the Church. The records consist of annual records of births, marriage, and death documents written in archaic foreign script, mainly from 1826 to 1865. Jewish records (approx. 2,500 films) from Poland and Hungary and 220 rolls of film on Jewish records from Alsace-Lorraine have been purchased through the efforts of Dr. Isaac Halbrecht. They are not yet available to researchers. "A Translation Guide to 19th-Century Polish Language Civil-Registration Documents," written by Judith R. Frazin (published by the Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois, 1984), was prepared specifically for these documents. Most people assume that because of the destruction of life and property during the Holocaust, no Jewish records remain in Europe. Though Nazi Germany destroyed Jews they did not deliberately destroy Jewish records. In fact they maintained scrupulous records of the destruction itself. Only recently, with the publicity about the Jewish records of the Genealogical Society of Utah (Mormons) we have become aware that much remains to research. To the surprise of many Jewish genealogists, despite the many losses of records due to fires, pogroms, frequent moves, lack of or careless record keeping, documents remain, even in Eastern Europe. It has recently become known that the governments maintained   vital and census records in the countries where Jews settled and lived. By 1826 in Poland and Hungary and by 1865 in Germany, there were uniform vital records of the Jewish communities in official archives. Archives of some small towns were included among those of the larger nearby towns, often mixed with Catholic or general records. Thus far, records have been released for microfilming from c. 1740 to c. 1870 enabling genealogists to examine 124 years of Jewish records. Wherever and whenever possible, Jews avoided creating records. They had valid reasons to fear placing census and birth records in government hands, since these would be used to draft Jewish men and boys for the army or to collect taxes. Jewish congregations though they did not ordinarily record births and marriages often kept burial records, if they maintained a burial ground or cemetery. In the late 1960s the Mormon Church filmed 100-year-old vital records in the towns and cities of West Germany, Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, and France. We find the following relevant birth, marriage, and death records among the Mormon microfilms: (1) Hungarian records of cities and towns within the former borders of Hungary, which include areas now in the former Soviet Union, Romania, Austria, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia from the early to middle 1800s to 1895, were filmed in the Budapest Archive. Also, there is a Jewish census from some old Hungarian counties in the year 1848. Hungarian Jewish Registers from 1840 are complete within modern borders. There were uniform vital Jewish records in Hungary from 1826. (2) German records of the German empire, which is now Germany, the former Soviet Union, France, and Poland from 1800 to 1895. East German Jewish records are being withheld at this time. (3) French civil records for Jews exist since 1792, many of which have not yet been filmed. Nineteenth-century Jewish records are in the Consistoire, and in the Alliance Israélite Universelle in France. Civil records for Jews are also in State Archives of Alsace and Lorraine. (4) Polish records: Russian and German areas of Poland had separate civil registers for Jews from 1826. Polish records in the Austrian territory of Galicia, except for Cracow and Tarnow, have not yet been filmed at the Polish State Archives. In most cases, Polish records which have been filmed provide records up to 1870. (5) Czechoslovakian Jewish records were centralized in Prague during World War II. Slovakian records were gathered in Bratislava. The records from Prague have been microfilmed and are also in the Archives of the History of the Jewish People in Jerusalem. The Czechoslovakian Embassy in Washington has a user's fee for genealogical research. (6) Soviet records have not been microfilmed. Government records are not made available to the researcher. However, there exist Jewish census records in Russia from 1794, 1811, 1815, 1833, 1850, and 1887. Jewish records are held in the Central State Archives in Minsk; Warsaw and Vilna Archives in Poland hold some pre-1917 Russian census records which are costly to obtain but are available. Russian-Polish vital records from Suwalki have been filmed. There are some pre-Holocaust Russian records in the Archives of the History of the Jewish People in Jerusalem, including birth, death, and marriage records in Hebrew and Russian from c. 1857 to 1878. Russian Consular Records from 1860 to the 1920s, left behind in Washington, D.C. by the Czarist government, have been discovered recently in storage in the National Records Center in Suitland, Maryland. Many files exist on Canadian and American Jews of Russian origins. Efforts are being made to index, catalogue, and translate these records from Russian to English. The Canadian Public Archives in Ottowa hold the Vancouver and Montreal files. They contain valuable genealogical materials. These files may be useful to Polish, Galician, Ukrainian, and other nationals who lived within the borders of Imperial Russia. The Mormon Church is now microfilming records from 1840 in Yugoslavia, which was under Austrian rule at that time. The Polish, Hungarian, and German Jewish records of the Genealogical Society of Utah were first published in Toledot: The Journal of Jewish Genealogy in 1978–79. An update of these records can be found at the Mormon library or at the Archives of the History of the Jewish People in Jerusalem or in John Cherny, The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy, "Jewish American Research," ch. 21 (1984). GENEALOGY AND EDUCATION Currently, genealogy is being used in schools as a method of personalizing Jewish history. Examining one's own family history leads to a more significant understanding of the total Jewish experience. History teachers are assigning students the task of preparing a chart and a map of family migrations in order to lead them into a study of the world of their direct forebears. An awareness of genealogical connectedness helps a group to maintain its distinctiveness. Genealogy binds individuals to the family and to their history. Genealogists write of their deepened interest in Jewish history, geography, and religion as a result of their genealogical research. They express a desire to study Yiddish and Hebrew in which so much Jewish family history is recorded. It is rare that a Jewish genealogist does not find that the family suffered grievous losses during the Holocaust. Forty years after the Holocaust, Jewish genealogists, as a result of their research, are finding for the first time that members of their families were among the six million. This discovery leads to a search for names and information about the deceased. The genealogist adds these names to records and charts, ensuring that the victims are memorialized and remembered within the embrace of the family. This personalizing of the Holocaust is a major concern of Jewish educators today.   SURNAMES AND GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH Name changes, both of a voluntary and involuntary nature, create problems for the genealogist. Most East and Central European Jews used patronymics (e.g., Moshe ben Amram). Surnames were rare, unless the family was in commerce, and traveling between cities. Around 1800, the governments in Central Europe began to demand surnames for the Jews. By 1844, Russia and Poland mandated that surnames be registered. However, even these names underwent a metamorphosis when they passed through the immigration gates of America. Hardly able to understand the heavily accented pronunciation of names, immigration officials wrote down phonetic sounds as they heard them. They would anglicize, change, or shorten names, as the mood struck them. Without a family record it is exceedingly difficult to trace families earlier than the 18th century. With marriage, women's maiden names were dispensed with and lost. Federal census records list the head of the household and occasionally the number of family members. Jewish tombstones usually refer to a person's father, and rarely the mother. PROBLEMS IN GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH (1) Because of war and change of borders, it is often hard to know in which country to do your research. (2) Frequently, Jews were married in Europe by religious ceremony (ḥuppah and kiddushin) but not with a civil license. Anti-Jewish legislation often forbade Jewish marriages, so couples often married secretly. Children of these marriages were not recognized by civil authorities as legitimate. Therefore, children took their mothers' surnames. Only sons were not conscripted by the Russian army. Additional sons were placed with families without sons and took that family's name. (3) Record keeping in Eastern Europe was careless. Control of fires was poor in small villages and records were irreparably lost. (4) Children were born at home and not in hospitals. Parents remembered the time of year ("around" which holiday) at which they were born but not the exact date. (5) Russian records since the end of World War I are not available to the public. (6) The pronunciation of town names varies greatly from their conventional spelling. There can be as many as 50 towns with similar sounding names all located within the same country. (7) Documents and genealogical material may be in Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, Polish, or other official languages. COMPUTER AND GENEALOGY A major problem in genealogy is information storage. The ongoing growth of genealogical information requires a constant revision of charts. For this reason many genealogists with very large inclusive family histories, resort to holding material in notebook form with sections assigned to each branch of the family. The computer with its various programs designed especially for genealogical study has become a very important tool. In 1982 the Jewish Genealogical Society, Inc. (New York) published the first computerized Family Finder. The purpose is to enable members of all Jewish genealogy societies to list names and towns being researched in one central location. This aims at reducing the duplication of research. Entered into the computer are the name and address of the researcher along with family surnames, and the names of towns, cities, and countries being researched. (The computer service for this project is Data Universal, Teaneck, New Jersey.) The printout is updated regularly, with the inclusion of new researchers' data, and sent to Jewish genealogy societies throughout the United States so that their members can utilize the information. Two Jewish books have been published by the Computer Center for Genealogy by Dr. Neil Rosenstein (The Margolis Family and Latter Day Leaders). This appears to be the wave of the future. Beth Hatefutsoth, the Museum of the Diaspora, in Tel Aviv has a computer department that holds information about Jewish names, cities, and towns and stores genealogical information. Famous published genealogies are being computerized. (Sara Schafler) -In Latin America The Asociación de Genealogía Judía de Argentina – AGJA (Association of Jewish Genealogy of Argentina) – was founded in 1996 and is affiliated to the international association of jewish genealogical societies – IAJGS. AGJA undertook voluntary work in documentation and digitalization of vital records, creating the database of the Jewish cemeteries in Argentina (with more than 215,000 names), and promoted similar work in Chile, Uruguay, and Peru. It digitized lists of settlers in the agricultural colonies of the Jewish Colonization Association (ICA) and is working on the lists of weddings and bar mitzvahs celebrated in synagogues in Buenos Aires. AGJA also promoted educational activities, conferences, and courses in Buenos Aires and in other communities for adults and students. It publishes the journal Toldot and has published the Diccionario de apellidos judíos ("Dictionary of Jewish Surnames," 2003. by Benjamin Edelstein. (Efraim Zadoff (2nd ed.) For additional information see international association of jewish genealogical societies . -BIBLIOGRAPHY: BIBLICAL: Klein, in: Zion (Me'assef), 2 (1927), 1–16; 3 (1929), 1–16; 4 (1930), 14–30; Maisler (Mazar), in: Zion, 11 (1946), 1–16; U. Cassuto, A Commentary on the Book of Genesis, 1 (1961), 249–89; 2 (1964), 141–224, 250–77; J. Liver, Toledot Beit David (1949); idem, in: Sefer D. Ben-Gurion (1964), 486–99; S. Yeivin, Meḥkarim be-Toledot Yisrael ve-Arẓo (1960), 131ff.; Luther, in: ZAW, 22 (1901), 33–76; E. Meyer, Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstaemme (1906); W. Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (19033), 3–39; Freund, in: Festschrift A. Schwarz (1917), 265–311; M. Noth, Das System der zwoelf Staemme Israels (1930); W. Duffy, The Tribal Historical Theory on the Origin of the Hebrew People (1944); De Vaux, Anc Isr, 4–7; Malamat, in: JAOS, 88 (1968), 163–73. POST-BIBLICAL AND MODERN: A. Buechler, in: Festschrift Adolf Schwarz   (1917), 133–62; L. Freund, ibid., 163–209; A.S. Hershberg, in: Devir, 2 (1923), 92–100; idem, in: Ha-Tekufah, 28 (1935), 348–62; V. Aptowitzer, Parteipolitik der Hasmonaeerzeit im rabbinischen und pseudoepigraphischen Schrifttum (1927); idem, in: Sefer Zikkaron… A.A. Poznański (1927), 145–69; S. Klein, in: Zion, 4 (1939), 30–50, 177–8; idem, in: Sefer ha-Yovel… B.M. Lewin (1939), 86–92; J. Katz, in: Zion, 10 (1945), 21–54; H.L. Poppers, in: JSOS, 20 (1958), 153–79; Shunami, Bibl, 466–9; E.E. Urbach, in: Divrei ha-Akademyah ha-Le'ummit ha-Yisre'elit le-Madda'im, 2 (1969), 31–54. RESEARCH, GENERAL: M.Z. Baker, "Eastern European Jewish Geography; Some Problems and Suggestions," in: Toledot: The Journal of Jewish Genealogy, 2 (1978–79); idem, "Landsmannschaften and the Jewish Genealogist," in: Toledot: The Journal of Jewish Genealogy, 4 (1983); idem, "Russian Consular Collection at the Public Archives of Canada; Genealogical Implications," in: Toledot: The Journal of Jewish Genealogy, 4 (1983); C.G. Cohen, Shtetl Finder Gazeteer (1980); J. Cherny, "Jewish American Research," in: The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy, (1984); J.W. Clasper and M.C. Dellenbach, Guide to the Holdings of the American Jewish Archives in Cincinnati (1979); S. David, "In Search of a Sephardic Tradition," in: Toledot: The Journal of Jewish Genealogy, 2 (1978–79); Israeli Archives Association, Guide to Archives in Israel (1973); S. Gorr, Official Gazette 1921–1948, Extract of Public Announcement of Legal Changes of Names during British Mandate in Palestine (4 volumes; 1983); P. Grayevsky, Avnei Zikkaron (1920); D. Kranzler, My Jewish Roots, A Practical Guide to Tracing and Recording Your Genealogy and Family History (1979); A. Kurzweil, From Generation to Generation, How to Trace Your Jewish Genealogy and Personal History (1980); B.C. Kaganoff, A Dictionary of Jewish Names and their History (1977); J. Kugelmass and J. Boyarin, A Ruined Garden, The Memorial Books of Polish Jewry (1983); A. Morton, Directory of European Passenger Steamship Arrivals (1931); S. Milton, "Genealogical Sources of the Leo Baeck Institute," in: Toledot: The Journal of Jewish Genealogy (1979); National Archives, Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives (1983); M. Plotkin, "Eretz-Israel and Jewish Genealogy, An Introduction to the Sources for the Ottoman and Mandate Periods," in: Toledot: The Journal of Jewish Genealogy, 3 (1983); A. Segall, Guide to Jewish Archives (1981); N. Rosenstein, The Margolis Family (1983); idem, Polish Jewish Cemeteries (1984); N. and E. Rosenstein, Latter Day Leaders, Sages and Scholars Bibliographical Index (1983); D. Rottenberg, Finding Our Fathers, A Guide Book to Jewish Genealogy (1977); M.H. Stern, Jewish Genealogy: An Annotated Bibliography Leaflet (1976); idem, First American Jewish Families, 600 Genealogies from 1654–1977 (1977); Who's Who in World Jewry (1955, 1956, 1968, 1972, 1978, 1981); D.S. Zubatsky and I.M. Berent, A Source Book of Family Histories and Genealogies (1984). RABBINIC: C.J.D. Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim ha-Shalem (1905); I. Alfasi, Ha-Hassidut (1974); D. Einsiedler, Rabbinic Genealogy: A Research Guide, an annotated bibliography, (1983); B. Friedberg, Beit Eked Sefarim (1956); N.Z. Friedman, Ozar Ha-Rabbanim (1975); N.S. Gottlieb, Ohalei Shem (1912); J. Levenstein, Dor Dor ve-Dorshav (1949); H. Michael, Or ha-Ḥayyim (1965); N. Rosenstein, The Unbroken Chain, New York (1976); N. Rosenstein and E. Rosenstein, Latter Day Leaders, Sages and Scholars Bibliographical Index, Computer Center for Jewish Genealogy (1983); A. Stern, Melizei Eish (1974); A. Walden, Shem Ha-Gedolim Ha-Hadash (1879); M. Wunder, Me'orei Galicia; Encyclopedia Le-Hahkmei Galicia, vol. I–II (1978); Encyclopedia Judaica, Ḥasidic Dynasties. EXAMPLES OF SOME OUTSTANDING BIOGRAPHIC GENEALOGIES: S.M. Auerbach, The Auerbach Family (1957); S. Epstein, Mishpahat Luria (1910); The Feuchtwanger Family; L. Lauterbach, Chronicles of the Lauterbach Family; A. Siev, Rabbeinu Moshe Isserles (REMA) (1972); E.B. Weill, Weil-De Veil, A Genealogy 1360–1956 (a Rabbinic family with Christian branches; 1957). SEPHARDI RESEARCH: A.L. Frumkin, Sefer Toldot Hakhmei Yerushalayim (1910); J. Gelis, Encyclopedia le-Toledot Hakhamei Eretz Israel (1973); C. Neppi and M. Ghirondi, Toledot Gedolei Israel ve-Geonei Italia (1853); M. Markowitz, Shem ha-Gedolim ha-Shelishi (1910); S. Rosanes, Korot ha-Yehudim be-Turkiah ve-Ateret ha-Kedem (1905, 1945); R. Halperin, Atlas Eẓ Ḥayyim (sections on Spain, Egypt, Israel, Italy, Turkey, and North Africa) (1978); A.M. Hyamson, The Sephardim in England: A History of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish Community 1492–1951; A. Chouraqui, Between East and West: A History of the Jews in North Africa (1973); C. Roth, World of Sephardim; A History of the Marranos (1954); M. Angel, La America (1982); Keyserling, Bibliotheca Espagnol-Portugesa-Judaica (German; 1890); Encyclopaedia Sephardica Neerlandica (Dutch; 1949); R. Singerman, The Jews in Spain and Portugal, a bibliography (1975). RABBINIC FAMILY GENEALOGIES: Avot Atarah le-Banim, for the families Katzenellenbogen, Wahl, Lifschutz back to Rashi; Mishpahat Luria, for families Luria, Treves, Spira; Shem mi-Shimon, for families Schapira, including the Baal Shem Tov; Mishpahot Atikot be-Yisrael, on Schapira and others related to them; Toledot Mishpahat Horowitz, ha-Dorot ha-Rishonim, Horowitz Family; Toledot Mishpahat ha-Rav mi-Liady, for the Schneersons of the Lubavitch Dynasty; Daat Kedoshim, intertwined families; The Auerbach Family; Chronicles of the Lauterbach Family; Sefer Hut ha-Meshullash, on the Sofer-Schreiber and Eiger families; Nitei Ne'emanah, on the Rubinstein family; Toledot Mishpahat Schor; Toledot Mishpahat Rosenthal, The familiesfrom Hungary; Reshimoth Aboth: Eine Ahnentafel von 27 Generationen bis zum Yahre 1290, on the Rabbinic families, Seckbach, Auerbach, Hirsch, Marx, Bodenheimer. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Kurzweill and M. Weiner, Encyclopedia of Jewish Genealogy (1994). HOLOCAUST: M. Weiner, Jewish Roots in Poland: Pages from the Past and Archival Inventories (1997); idem, Jewish Roots in Ukraine and Moldova: Pages from the Past and Archival Inventories (2000).

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Genealogy — (from Greek: el. γενεά, el. genea , descent ; and el. λόγος, el. logos , knowledge ) is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral traditions, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records …   Wikipedia

  • genealogy — meaning ‘(the study of) a person s line of descent’, is derived from a Greek word genea meaning ‘race, generation’. The existence of so many words ending in ology (archaeology, psychology, sociology, etc.) and the influence of its own derivative… …   Modern English usage

  • Genealogy — Gen e*al o*gy, n.; pl. {Genealogies}. [OE. genealogi, genelogie, OF. genelogie, F. g[ e]n[ e]alogie, L. genealogia, fr. Gr. ?; ? birth, race, descent (akin to L. genus) + ? discourse.] [1913 Webster] 1. An account or history of the descent of a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • genealogy — genealogy. phylogeny (cм.). (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • genealogy — index ancestry, blood, bloodline, descent (lineage), family (common ancestry), lineage, origin ( …   Law dictionary

  • genealogy — early 14c., line of descent, pedigree, descent, from O.Fr. genealogie (12c.), from L.L. genealogia tracing of a family, from Gk. genealogia, from genea generation, descent (see GENUS (Cf. genus)) + logia (see LOGY (Cf. logy)). An O.E. word for it …   Etymology dictionary

  • genealogy — [n] person’s family tree ancestry, blood line, derivation, descent, extraction, generation, genetics, heredity, history, line, lineage, parentage, pedigree, progeniture, stemma, stirps, stock, strain; concept 296 …   New thesaurus

  • genealogy — ► NOUN (pl. genealogies) 1) a line of descent traced continuously from an ancestor. 2) the study of lines of descent. DERIVATIVES genealogical adjective genealogist noun. ORIGIN Greek genealogia, from genea race, generation + logos account …   English terms dictionary

  • genealogy — [jē΄nē äl′ə jē, jē΄nēal′ə jē; jen΄ēäl′ə jē] n. pl. genealogies [ME genelogi < OFr genealogie < LL genealogia < Gr < genea, race, descent (akin to genos: see GENUS) + logia, LOGY] 1. a chart or recorded history of the descent of a… …   English World dictionary

  • genealogy — genealogical /jee nee euh loj i keuhl, jen ee /, genealogic, adj. genealogically, adv. genealogist, n. /jee nee ol euh jee, al , jen ee /, n., pl. genealogies. 1. a record or account of the ancestry and descent of a person, family, group, etc. 2 …   Universalium


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